R.A.T. Engine Runs On Air


Texas inventor, Kim Zorzi explains how his Recirculating Air Turbine system works to harness energy latent in air by combining several expired patent technologies including supercharger compression, expanded diameter generator, water injection, axial flux generator, etc.

See Part I

by Kim A. Zorzi
for Pure Energy Systems News

RAT Motor (Rev 4)
(Recirculating Air Turbine)
Designed by Kim A. Zorzi, dba Ultralight America
February 20, 2009 – August 2011

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Background of the Invention

The Recirculating Air Turbine (RAT) is a unique blend of technology that crosses over several influential designs that have been leaders in the last 100 years. This blending creates a very strong kinetic reaction engine that develops its power by the efficient use of thermal dynamics.

Most compressed air engines that have been developed over the past century have shown to consume a high volume of cubic feet of air to produce a sufficient force required to do work, and that would quickly deplete any storage reservoirs. In order for a compressed air engine to work efficiently, the amount of consumed air to do work must be minimized.

The RAT design maximizes the expansion and compression of the air at the same time to create its motive driving force. While further basing the design on a low pressure re circulating air system, the need to require a large amount of high pressure storage containers is no longer required. By crossing the Stirling Heat Engine with a compressed air type design offers better shaft torque output values with less air to operate, this design now becomes a new hybrid type of reaction engine not defined by Slagby (1878) on the logical division of air engines. The actual power turbine exemplifies the work of Victor Schauberger’s implosion motor theory along with making use of other known expired patented technologies.

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RAT Power Turbine

The turbine, nicknamed “RAT” for “Recirculating Air Turbine” is based on the natural expansion principles of the Physical Gas Laws. A large part of the turbines power is derived from this internal thermal energy created by the high heat and then continuing this expansion during the chamber compression near the peripheral at higher rpms.

Specially designed high pressure depressive jets are built into the peripheral for absorbing and compressing the gas fluid without using any moving devices. This allows us to produce a lot of output energy force from a much smaller amount of input energy. Exhausted gas fluid builds up a pressure in the housing that will become four times greater then the input pressure.

There is one Supercharger Compressor that is comprised of an axial and radial compressor veins. It is spun up and controlled by an Axial Flux dc electric motor and this is what controls the intake and the exhaust pressures. The Supercharger has only one moving part and can compress up to 980 liters of air per minute at 49 (700 psi) atmospheres. Only one supercharger is required to produces the air supply to power up the turbine. This also controls the exhausted air supply back into the turbine so the power can be maintained at a constant output. New air is inhaled thru a check valve at the supercharger only when a vacuum is felt in the system. This then acts as a closed loop system.

It is a known fact that increasing the distance in air movement causes the air to have a considerable heat loss. So the compactness of this design significantly cuts down on the air transfer whereby keeping the heat loss to a minimum.

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This new model is based on a low-speed, naturally super-heated (600 degrees F), specially constructed chambers that are capable of capturing and re-expanding its hot exhaust gases for reuse over and over again. By using a built in generator inside the turbine, electrical energy is created thru the increased rpm which then supplies power to the heating elements within the
descending piston chambers to increase the chamber heat.

The efficiency of the turbine is calculated in the high 90 percent range with a continuous output of 286 kW shaft power. But the difference between the previous built prototype and this design is that this new design runs on low pressure air (175 psi or 11.9 atmospheres) and does not require high pressure storage bottles.

The faster the turbine goes the more heat is applied into the expansion part of the air stream. When the full heat is obtained in the descending chamber pistons (600 degree’s), a water injection process of atomized water can be injected to drive the turbine to a higher torque output. Super heating the dry air to several hundred degrees will increase in volume under constant pressure over 50 percent. But by adding the additional moisture to the point of saturation the pressures are greatly increased thru the release of latent heat of evaporation. A large part of the turbines power is derived from this exchange of internal thermal energy. The water can be obtained from rain or from water wells. Water only enhances the torque output shaft driving force and is not required.

All ambient air contains a certain amount of humidity, and this helps power the air turbine. Eliminating the need for a gearbox, the supercharger in our application is a direct drive by one of our own high torque variable speed electric motors. We can therefore regulate the flow so that the compressed air output will match the air demand.

The piston chambers are designed to create a “Descending Piston” whereas a compression can be achieved near the peripheral. Once the compressed air supply enters at the thru holes near the center, the rotational velocity of the turbine will cause this air to move to the peripheral. When the clean compressed air enters into the piston chamber it must pass by a centrally located heating element. This heating element is located in the center of the air flow and is one half the distance of the total chamber length. Each heating element is capable of 1200 watts output and can create high heat temperatures in the 1000 degree range if needed.

As this pressure is increased while passing thru the heating elements it is also further being compressed. The resulting increase in pressure therefore reacts with the fluid to increase the heat exponentially towards the peripheral When this higher pressure is condensed at the peripheral then it must pass thru a jet type nozzle. The nozzle jets themselves are made with adjustments in order to increase or decrease the velocity of the exiting air pressure. This will control the velocity of the power turbine and also the torque output. Also, the exiting fluid at the peripheral is jetted at an angle velocity so the turbine can only spin one direction.

As the speed of the turbine increases per the compressed air volume, the increased electrical energy will feed the heating elements increasing the heat and thus increasing the pressure within the chamber and therefore increasing the rpm.

Once the air exits the peripheral of the power turbine it will circulate around the inside of the housing exiting thru the exhausts ports. These tubes will lead to the intake of the Supercharger. The back pressure in this housing will probably reach 30 atmospheres. This back pressure does not interfere with the thrust of the power turbine. No resulting back pressure can bind up the speed of the power turbine as in conventional piston type air engine designs. Conventional pistons designs can slow due to a build up of back pressure. The back pressure coming about from the release from the power turbine jets builds more spin into the supercharger helping to relinquish some of the load on the electric motor. Both the back pressure and the head pressure combine in the supercharger to transmit an even greater head pressure that increases the torque value to the power turbine.

The air pressure which is felt in the supercharger inlet can also be regulated thru a release valve which releases this out into the atmosphere if an over pressure is felt in the system. In the center of the power turbine is a stationary rotating valve system that also controls the amount of air pressure supplied to the descending pistons. By opening and closing the chambers at specific degree angles allows a pulsing of air pressure to jet into the chambers giving the descending pistons enough time to expand and pressure the peripheral jets.


The Supercharger is an old patented item that is brought into this assembly because it is the most efficient compressor built so far in this age of technology advancement. Being assembled with an axial and radial compressor combined, this compressor will recharge the storage system with a clean supply of air equally as fast as the turbines consumption. Its frictional and torque requirement is extremely low as compared to other reciprocating piston type compressors of equal value. Lee Rogers patented this supercharger in 1978 for his converted automobile to run a V8 piston engine on a self compressed air supply.

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We have examined, evaluated and redesigned the Lee Rogers example above to better compliment the exhaust from the power turbine into the supercharger. Lee used special gearing and belt drives to power the supercharger off the V8 engine, but we have designed the supercharger to run off a variable speed axial flux electric motor. This lets us separate the high pressure and the low pressure by controlling the head and exhaust pressure for a consistent rpm output. Power for this is supplied from a 48 volt battery system which can be maintained by a roof mounted solar input and later recharged by the generator power. This technology was proven to work on Lee Roger’s car so incorporating this into the air turbine was an unsurpassed technological marriage.

Other fluids and inert gases used as mixing agents

By the introduction of certain fluids or gases into the descending piston chambers, enhanced power can be developed by the reaction engine. This power is not of a combustion nature but of creating expansion pressure arising by the super heated descending pressure chambers possibly creating a cold fusion state to develop.

Lee Rogers used a tank of nitrogen to start his V8 engine since nitrogen has an expansion rate of 1000 to one over compressed air. The RAT may use a nitrogen gas to exemplify its power need, but water injection is the desired motive fuel base.

Heavy Water Injection Considerations

“If in fact specifically heavy high quality water such as Deuterium (heavy water) is atomized and the resultant water vapor is compressed by a descending piston with a simultaneous infusion of atmospheric oxygen, then this aqueous mixture of air is instantaneously transformed into increased and highly potentiated stocks of new air. The expansive pressure produced in this way corresponds to the power of about 20,000 psi. per liter of water.” (“The Energy Evolution” by Callum Coats pg. 44, 2nd paragraph)

There are a great number of other possible combinations that also can be configured to use in this engine. The mixture of Deuteron and Helium 3 in a properly constructed formula introduced into the descending chamber at the right moment could produce a power potential many times greater than the potential of a
chemical rocket, releasing a much greater toque ratio unsurpassed in any engine
constructed in the last 100 years. This is still a non combustion energy system.


Our turbine technology is connected to an Axial Flux Generator that is built on a larger radius. This lets us make use of the input torque from the turbine and create 3 times more electrical energy output from the mass of the radius. Using newer magnetic material and a lighter housing lets us construct a new type generator that can produce a substantial amount of power with a very low weight and smaller power shaft input. The wattage output of the AF Generator is 100k watts with a short term output requirement of 120kw. But for the first air turbine prototype we will be using a 40k watt dc generator head as pictured below. The generator head will only require a 1200 rpm range and will fit nicely into the rpm of our air turbine.

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Since we know the air turbine can produce over a 300 hp shaft output, the required hp needed for this generator will only be about 60 hp. This is to give us a considerable wide safety margin and room for error. {EDITOR’S COMMENT: I would think that this overpowering possibility would be a recipe for burning up the generator.}

Axial Flux Motor Technology (Powering the SUPERCHARGER)

A key part of this package is the axial flux (AF) electric motor technology with an extended torque radius. Use of Axial Flux motor technology lets us again multiply this electrical force to our advantage. These electric motors can produce up to 2 kW for every kg of weight. So a 150 horsepower motor (112 kW) will weigh 11.3 kg instead of 227 kg currently purchased off the shelf today.

A standard axial flux motor with a modern inverter can already be made 95% efficient. Its weight is only one fifth of what a standard induction motor weighs, and it provides much more torque. It draws generally 10% less power for the same shaft but they are as powerful as an induction motor. Building the same motor on a radius that is three times larger than the radius of the standard motor makes the AF motor produce three times the torque or three times as large a shaft power for the same current in. If we feed the motor that has this extra torque radius with one third of the power that a normal motor is drawing then it will produce the same shaft power as the regular motor. So the motor with extra large torque radius provides the same shaft power as an equivalent induction motor for only 25% of the electricity that a standard induction motor will require. An extended radius axial flux motor can replace the internal combustion engine in existing cars and trucks. They are only 1/5 of the size of standard induction motors, and only a fraction of the size of an internal combustion engine. They will with the proper inverters perform better than the internal combustion engine. {EDITOR’S NOTE: This point begs for evidence, substantiation and elaboration.}


The market potential for this RAT technology and AF Generator system can become as large as the current carbon based footprint covering our society today.

Our current objectives are to create a company that will produce the turbine generator and axial flux motors in several different sizes and distribute these items thru distributorships thru out the world. Distributorships and licensing agreements are already being considered for several countries.

Over the next fifty years, 20 times more electrical power can be generated by the use of this technology. If 600 million cars producing 50kW of power are all plugged into the grid at the same time when not in use, there will not be any shortage of electrical power on this planet. Trucks, cars, boats, airplanes, post office vehicles, all become part of the smart grid not only producing electrical power but also earning an extra income for the owners.

All these transportation possibilities produce no carbon exhaust emissions nor do they destroy our environment in any way.

This technology could produce jobs, income, tax revenues, finance possibilities, spur the global economy, and increase the chances of sustainable and equitable global development. At this time, most of the engineering work has been completed on the newly designed “RAT”, and the actual manufacturing process has begun.

The environmental impact of this engine is a clean reusable exhaust that further enhances the air we breath and does not damage the earth any further.

More information can be learned about this by referring to my website at www.ultralightamerica.com and clicking into the EDAV PROJECT PART 7.

Kim A. Zorzi (KAZ)

Website: www.ultralightamerica.com Email: ulamerica@aol.com


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