US military “Reveal information that would impair application of state-of-the-art technology within a US weapon system.”
acus.gov: Exemption (b)(4) of FOIA permits agencies, as a matter of discretion, to withhold trade secrets and commercial or financial information obtained from a person which is privileged or confidential. Although FOIA contains procedural safeguards and a right of judicial review for requesters of agency records, the Act is silent regarding the rights of submitters of information whose legitimate interests may be impaired as a result of public disclosure of their information.
“What are examples of trade secrets within RJR’s MRTPAs that FDA redacted? Examples of trade secrets redacted by FDA include manufacturing processes, ingredient composition, analytical methods, and quality control procedures. What are examples of confidential commercial information within RJR’s MRTPAs that FDA redacted? Examples of confidential commercial information redacted by FDA include the identity and standard operating procedures of RJR’s business consultants, marketing research, and copyrighted information.
How has FDA designated trade secrets and confidential commercial information within the MRTPAs? The redaction code (b)(4) indicates the areas within the MRTPAs where FDA redacted trade secrets and confidential commercial information.
Has FDA redacted any other information within RJR’s”
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Immortalized cells (also called continuous cells or cell lines) are primary cells whose telomeres and/or tumour suppressor genes have been altered. Tumour suppressor genes (e.g. p53 and Rb) are important for signalling the cell to stop dividing when the likelihood of DNA damage is higher (i.e. after multiple cell cycles, read more about the cell cycle on our knowledge base). In the case of immortalized cells, these genes have been knocked down or their function inhibited so that the cell is able to keep dividing indefinitely.