Ford Motors proved 200 mpg was possible in 1933. Shell Oil proved 376 mpg possible in 1973.

 

Canadian inventor,  Charles Nelson Pogue invented a carburetor that vaporized gasoline, instead of nebulizing it into tiny drops, thus dramatically increasing mileage per gallon of gasoline used.  In 1933 Charles Nelson Pogue made headlines when he drove a 1932 Ford V8, 200 miles on a gallon of gas during a demonstration conducted by The Ford Motor Companies in Winnipeg, Manitoba using his super-carb system.

 

United States Patent # 750354 http://www.freepaten … 354&stemming=on (Download .pdf 1750354 ) In fact, many people attested to these mileage claims as The Pogue Carb went into production and was sold openly. However, one of the crucial factors of these systems is the use of “white” gasoline, which contained no additives. It was at this time oil companies started adding lead to the fuel. Lead is an anti-catalyst that rendered Pogue’s carburetor as inefficient as a regular carb.

 

His invention caused such shock waves through the stock market, that the US and Canadian governments both stepped in and applied pressure to stifle him. He suffered an enormous amount of loss as a result of trying to make the world a better place.

 

Mr. Pogue’s vaporizer brought him in contact with a lot of people who didn’t want what he was offering to get out. He received many accolades, and was accused by others as being a fraud. Lead was intentionally added to gasoline to prevent anyone else from building such a device, since lead leaves heavy deposits and clogs these types of units, rendering them ineffective due to the inability to transfer heat to the fuel.

 

Pogue wasn’t the only one to substantially increase the fuel efficiency of the gas combustion engine.  Tom Ogle of El Paso Texas , a 24 year old mechanic drove 200 miles in a 1970 351 ci. Ford on 2 gallons of gas. Other mechanics and engineers checked for hidden tanks, none were found. Reporters and a camera crew went with him 100 miles out and back; 200 miles 2 gallons. He claimed from the beginning that he did not know exactly how the system worked, just that it did and he proved it time and again. He had hoped other engineers would help to explain what he was doing. He had a hard time getting backers that had integrity. Everybody wanted controlling interest and he knew it was going on the back shelf. Tom resisted and tried to get it on the market. Later he was shot and survived, only four months later he did die of an overdose of darvon and alcohol with no suicide note. Nobody explained what became of his idea. A patent was issued Dec. 11, 1979 # 4,177,779 – Four months after his death.

 

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United States Patent 4177779 http://www.freepaten … ine.com/4177779.html

 

Patent Abstract – A fuel economy system for an internal combustion engine which, when installed in a motor vehicle, obviates the need for a conventional carburetor, fuel pump and gasoline tank. The system operates by using the engine vacuum to draw fuel vapors from a vapor tank through a vapor conduit to a vapor equalizer which is positioned directly over the intake manifold of the engine. The vapor tank is constructed of heavy duty steel or the like to withstand the large vacuum pressure and includes an air inlet valve coupled for control to the accelerator pedal. The vapor equalizer ensures distribution of the correct mixture of air and vapor to the cylinders of the engine for combustion, and also includes its own air inlet valve coupled for control to the accelerator pedal. The system utilizes vapor-retarding filters in the vapor conduit, vapor tank and vapor equalizer to deliver the correct vapor/air mixture for proper operation. The vapor tank and fuel contained therein are heated by running the engine coolant through a conduit within the tank. Due to the extremely lean fuel mixtures used by the present invention, gas mileage in excess of one hundred miles per gallon may be achieved.

 

 

Pogue Carburetor – A press report from that time read as follows:

 

Double-Mixing Carburetor Increases Power and Mileage

 

A NEW carburetor that makes mileage of 200 miles per gallon a possibility has been invented by a Winnipeg, Can., engineer. It has been tested and examined by several automotive engineers who claim it is entirely feasible in its action.

 

C.N. Pogue, the inventor, supplies his carburetor with two mixing chambers instead of one. The gasoline is vaporized in the primary chamber and before being used is sent through another mixing chamber. Here, since it is vapor that burns and not liquid gasoline, the gasoline is further vaporized into a still finer mixture. This insures more power and mileage from usual quantity of liquid gasoline.

 

The main factors that affect gasoline ignition is Air fuel mixture. Air fuel mixture must be between a 7:1 and 20:1 ratio to ignite properly. When the engine is cold it may be hard to obtain even the leanest ratio because the fuel may not vaporize sufficiently. This ratio is increased by the use of a choke (or now a fuel injector system). A choke literally chokes the engine of fuel – cuts off flow to the bare minimal until the engine reaches operating temperature. Once the engine is warm enough you would disengage the choke to allow normal fuel flow. The temperature definitely has a great affect on ignition. At lower temperatures, less evaporation, therefore smaller surface area then gasoline in a vapor form.

 

Gasoline in a vapor form is better because it has a larger surface area for the reaction (combustion) to take place. Temperature has a profound affect on the carb jetting because of the changes in air density. When the air density increases, you will need to richen (add more fuel) to the air-fuel mixture to compensate. When the air density decreases, you will need to lean-out (reduce the fuel intake) the air-fuel mixture to compensate.

 

Factor that Affect Air Density is air temperature. As the air temperature increases the air density becomes lower. This will make the air-fuel mixture richer (more fuel consumed). When the pressure decreases, the opposite effect occurs – less fuel consumed.

 

The concept of gasoline vapor induction goes back at least as far as 1915 with patents illustrating how gasoline in a gaseous state is explosive, hence dynamic. Gasoline in a liquid state must be converted to a gas before burning can take place; it’s the rapid burning that causes the air and fuel mixture to expand, hence a downward force during the power (down stroke) stroke of a piston in a reciprocating engine.

 

Since vaporization occurs for the burning process to conclude, Gasoline Vapor Induction (also referred to as GVI) simply pre-stages the gasoline to release the hydrocarbon in a gas form early on in the process. This phase change allows the hydrocarbon to release its energy dynamically (like a stick of dynamite) versus thermally (like a corked tea kettle as it starts to boil).

 

Atmospheric pressure abounds on planet Earth, and that is a large factor in determining the state of matter in our troposphere. In order to boil a liquid (convert from a liquid to a gas) the atmospheric pressure must be overcome. One common way to do this is to add heat (increase the average ambient kinetic energy per cubic inch) until the molecules are excited enough to break free from the meniscus of the liquid. This is a high-energy mechanism to accomplish a natural phase change in matter.

 

A low-energy solution was discovered by inventor George Talbert in the 1960’s; remove the atmospheric pressure and the compound (when possible) converts to a gas in favor of its’ self-defining properties. Gasoline is abundant with such compounds; hence it releases the hydrocarbons in gaseous form readily at less than one atmosphere.

 

George Talbert’s Fuel vaporizing system on a 1981 Oldsmobile.

 

The first step in the process is to capture fuel in a liquid state from the fuel pump. This is accomplished with a fuel filter containing two output fuel line connections. Connected immediately after the fuel line filter/splitter, is a fuel line connected to a vaporization canister.

 

This particular vaporization canister was made from an exhaust pipe reducer/coupler. The reducer has a float connected to the incoming fuel line. The float allows the canister to only fill to the one-half-way point with liquid fuel, and then the float closes the fuel supply to the canister. The exhaust pipe reducer/coupler is sealed at both ends with metal disks that are welded on each end to create an atmosphere resistant container. The top of the canister has a small (1/32 of one inch inner diameter) copper line that protrudes through it; it is also sealed from atmosphere, by a solder joint.

 

The copper line is snuggly connected to a vapor line, and the other end of the vapor line is connected to a spacer plate that is below the base plate of the existing carburetor, which was installed at the factory in 1981. The carburetor was modified by removing the fuel rods during a rebuild, and the jets were soldered shut. No fuel passes through the carburetor as the fuel line to the carburetor was removed and sealed with a bolt and hose clamp.

 

In the spacer plate at the top of the intake manifold is an infuser. There is nothing special about the infuser, it is a fuel rod made of copper with dozens of tiny holes drilled throughout its’ length. The copper fuel rod is inside of a metal outer rod that is spaced 1/32 of inch around the fuel rod, covering the fuel rods’ entire length. The metal tube that encases the fuel rod has small holes drilled at 45 degrees and 90 degrees.

 

When the piston travels its’ down stroke path into the cylinder of the engine block, a vacuum it created. That vacuum is transferred (via the vapor line mentioned earlier) to the vaporization canister. Inside the canister the atmospheric pressure is reduced causing the fuel to convert to a very fine atomized mist. That mist is carried via the vacuum line to a flow control valve (used to meter the amount of vaporized fuel particles available to the infuser) and then to the infuser at the base of the carburetor. Above the infuser is a throttle plate and below the infuser is a throttle plate. The plates are comprised of butterfly cover plates connected to the throttle linkage and a return spring. A common linkage to keep them synchronized connects all the throttle plates.

 

When the gasoline fog (fine mist) reaches the infuser, heat and airflow come into play. It has been noted that more humid atmospheric conditions create a smoother operating engine. The gasoline fog converts into a gaseous hydrocarbon in the hot infuser and mixes with the incoming air. The air fuel mixture is drawn into the cylinder and an explosion occurs thus driving the piston downward by concussion, versus rapid thermal expansion; and an economy of force per cubic inch of fuel expended is achieved. The isometric mixture seems to remain near fifteen parts air to one part fuel, but a more powerful explosive force precedes a turbulent concussive shockwave driving the piston. Due to the more volatile state of the air fuel mixture, the timing was set to 4 degrees before top dead center versus the factory setting of 18 degrees after top dead center. The spark advance is currently not in use due to the disconnection of the accelerator pump.

 

Originally the accelerator pump was to be used (as illustrated in the drawing) but the decision to bypass it was finalized during construction of the actual working model. The flow control is manually set for optimal performance during each operating cycle of the engine. Temperature and humidity do effect the operation of the engine; the vapor flow can be altered via setting the valve to more opened, or more closed to smooth out the operation of the engine. By setting the flow control valve, acceleration can be achieved while bypassing the accelerator pump.

 

It was proven possible in 1933, that gas combustion engines can get a fuel efficiency of 200 mpg. Lead was added to drastically lower the fuel efficiency.  Even with lead added it was proven possible to get a fuel efficiency of 100 mpg in 1970.  Then three years later in 1973 a souped-down 1959 Opel T-1 achieved 376.59 miles per gallonFeatured in the Guinness Book of World Records. Using fully stock production gasoline engine powered vehicles, with engine modifications limited only to changes in fuel mixture and ignition timing, Shell Oil Company served host to an open competition in automobile efficiency. The fruit of their forum was sweet indeed as a two-door, full-sized production car was able to drive off with the prize by achieving 376.59 miles in normal driving conditions using a single gallon of fuel. A more heavily modified vehicle was able to achieve over 1140 miles on a single gallon of fuel. Results like these are truly astounding and beg the question: Are we really getting all we can in efficiency from auto makers?

 

So why are we only getting a maximum of just 50 mpg today?  Because of this –

 

 

Greater fuel efficiency has been controlled since the introduction of the fuel injection engines and the ECM (engine control module). The Engine Control Unit or ECU is a designated computer that was developed to manage the engine control system. The ECM consists of electronics which are mounted on a multi-layer circuit board. The ECM monitors and adjusts the air/fuel mixture and utilizes a catalytic converter to minimize the amount of pollution produced from the engine. There are two modes of operation, closed loop, which means the computer has completely taking over the operation system. And open loop which is used when the engine is cold and operates on a preset program. The engine must be at operating temperature before it can go into closed loop.

The ECM monitors the input and output signals produced by various sensors in the system. The ECM then adjusts the system as necessary. Sensors include: O2 (oxygen) sensor, coolant sensor, mass air flow sensor, air intake sensor, crankshaft angle sensor, throttle position sensor, camshaft angle sensor and knock sensor. The ECM operating program consists of information cells. These cells hold the code for controlled engine operation.

The ECM outputs a 5 volt reference to most sensors to regulate the monitoring circuits. The ECM also controls the radiator cooling fan, air pump controls, fuel pump, EVAP system and more depending on the vehicle. The main purpose of the ECM is to control the vehicle’s air/ fuel mixture, to maintain a factory set air to fuel mixture ratio so that the vehicle fuel consumption is controlled to low fuel efficiency standards. The car makers have controlled the fuel efficiency of their vehicles by setting the air/fuel mixture ratio to a constant 14.7 : 1.

All modern vehicles have O2 sensors. The O2 sensor produces its own voltage, which makes it a type of generator. The generated varying voltage shows up on the scope as the familiar 1 Hz sine wave, when in closed loop (engine is at operating temperature). The actual voltage that is generated is the difference between the O2 content of the exhaust and that of the surrounding ambient air. The stoichiometric air-fuel ratio or the mixture of air-to-fuel is programmed by the vehicle manufacturer to equal to 14.7:1. The car manufacturers state that at this ratio the engine combustion process happens with the most power being generated and the least amount of emissions being produced. At a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio (14.7:1), the generated O2 sensor voltage is preset to about 450 mV. The Engine Control Module (ECM) is programmed to view a value above the 450 mV as a rich condition, and a lean condition below it. The ECM adjusts the fuel injector pulse width to achieve the factory set mixture, as determined by the O2 sensor. When the O2 gets too RICH, it will always and automatically decrease the injector pulse width allowing less fuel to be injected into the engine, if it gets too LEAN, it’s always and automatically increase the amount of fuel injected in the engine.

The vehicle’s Air mass meters, controlled by the ECM, also determines how much fuel is or isn’t used in the combustion. A set electric signal is applied to a special alloy wire that is suspended in the middle of the air flow to the engine and depending upon how much air passes across that wire, it presents an impedence to the flow of the signal and the ECM then uses this signal to determine how much fuel is required to meet the 14.7:7 air to fuel mixture ratio.

In both cases a voltage controls the air to fuel mixture so that it will always be a constant – 14.7:1 or very low fuel efficiency. The secret to greater fuel efficiency is to change the voltage so that the vehicle runs leaner – leaner meaning less fuel is being used. Even a slight adjustment to the voltage will result in much better fuel efficiency. The trick is to adjust the voltage by reducing the voltage just enough as to not reduce the fuel flow to such extremes as to starve the engine for fuel. There are many ways to quickly and cheaply reduce the voltage output to the vehicle’s O2 sensors and Air mass meter.

Another secret to increased fuel efficiency is to bypass the vehicle’s air mass metering. Air bypass lets unmetered air into the intake manifold. The computer does not “know” about this air and thus does not match it with its preset air fuel mixture ration. The more air you allow to bypass, the less fuel will be automatically injected by the ECM to meet the 14.7:1 low fuel efficiency protocols. Bypassing the air mass metering system rather than reducing the air flow before the air mass metering system will insure that the engine receives more air than required for a good combustion. If you were to restrict the air flow before the air mass metering system your vehicle would lose performance. If you can cram more air into a cylinder of a given size, you can get more power from the cylinder (in the same way that you would by increasing the size of the cylinder). Turbochargers and superchargers pressurize the incoming air to effectively cram more air into a cylinder.

Auto makers lobbied the government to make it mandatory for all vehicle operating on Canadian and US roads to be equipped with an ECM, O2 sensors and air mass metering systems so that they can control the fuel efficiency of their vehicles. They sold this electronic control system to the government as an emission control system. They said it would control the air fuel mixture ratio to lower carbon emissions. In reality it was set up to guarantee a greater demand for fuel and therefore fuel our dependency on oil. For decades we have been forced to buy vehicles that are very fuel inefficient. Just by changing the factory set air fuel mixture ratio we can be driving more fuel efficient vehicles, not by 2020, but as early as tomorrow.

 

Short URL: http://presscore.ca/2011/?p=5837

 

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