This is food for thought… This is not to be taken as medical advice although these are the finding of world renowned researchers and experts in the medical science fields. This is presented for educational purposes.
Detailed analysis of immune response to SARS-CoV-2 bodes well for COVID-19 vaccine
The teams also looked at the T cell response in blood samples that had been collected between 2015 and 2018, before SARS-CoV-2 started circulating. Many of these individuals had significant T cell reactivity against SARS-CoV-2, although they had never been exposed to SARS-CoV-2. But everybody has almost certainly seen at least three of the four common cold coronaviruses, which could explain the observed crossreactivity.
In other words, “novel” SARS-CoV-2 isn’t really “novel” to many people.
Abstract The objective of this study is to review, through prospective case research, the efficacy of oral chlorine dioxide in the treatment of patients with COVID infection 19. The research will be carried out between April and June 2020 with a quasi-experimental design in two health care centers on a sample of twenty (20) patients, through direct intervention, who will measure the changes in the manifest symptoms of infection and negativity. a COVID 19 after administration of the study preparation, to determine the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide in the treated group.
Based on the results that are found and on the evaluation of efficacy on the basis of clinical improvement on a scale of 1 to 5, and of the negativization of COVID 19, we can conclude whether the therapeutic efficacy in this investigation is considered good by verifying whether or not there is efficacy of treatment with chlorine dioxide in COVID 19.
With this research, it is hoped to stimulate the search for new therapeutic options in the treatment of COVID 19 and contribute to the development of NEW options in medications, considering the immense number of deaths and morbidity that currently exists in the present pandemic.
Key words: COVID 19, chlorine dioxide, treatment.
“For SARS-CoV (2002/03), however, CD4+ T cell responses are generally associated with positive outcomes”
The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a rapidly unfolding pandemic, overwhelming health care systems worldwide1. Clinical manifestations of Corona-virus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) vary broadly, ranging from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory failure and death2, yet the underlying physiological conditions and mechanisms for this high variability are still unknown. Also, the role of host immune responses in viral clearance and its involvement in pathogenesis remains unresolved. For SARS-CoV (2002/03), however, CD4+ T cell responses are generally associated with positive outcomes3,4, while cellular immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 have not yet been investigated. Here we describe an assay that allows direct detection and characterization of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S)-reactive CD4+ T cells in peripheral blood. We demonstrate the presence of S-reactive CD4+ T cells in 83% of COVID-19 patients, as well as in 34% of SARS-CoV-2 seronegative healthy donors, albeit at lower frequencies. Strikingly, in COVID-19 patients S-reactive CD4+ T cells equally targeted both N-terminal and C-terminal parts of S whereas in healthy donors S-reactive CD4+ T cells reacted almost exclusively to the Cterminal part that is a) characterized by higher homology to spike glycoprotein of human endemic “common cold” coronaviruses, and b) contains the S2 subunit of S with the cytoplasmic peptide (CP), the fusion peptide (FP), and the transmembrane domain (TM) but not the receptor-binding domain (RBD). S-reactive CD4+ T cells from COVID-19 patients were further distinct to those from healthy donors as they co-expressed higher levels of CD38 and HLA-DR, indicating their recent in vivo activation. Our study is the first to directly measure SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cell responses providing critical tools for large scale testing, in depth epitope mapping and characterization of potential cross-reactive cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2. The presence of pre-existing SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors is of high interest but larger scale prospective cohort studies are needed to assess whether their presence is a correlate of protection or pathology. Results of such studies will be key for a mechanistic understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, adaptation of containment methods and to support vaccine development.
Bout of common cold may give immunity
The findings are part of rapidly evolving understanding of the Sars-Cov-2 (which causes Covid-19), which has presented a near-unprecedented challenge to scientists by manifesting itself in a plethora of ways that include unpredictably serious disease progression and unexplained recoveries. SOURCE: https://www.hindustantimes.com/india-news/bout-of-common-cold-may-give-immunity/story-7WnqI5SlaWBSOLMLTQs8JM.html
“suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating ‘common cold’ coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.”
Measuring immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is key for understanding COVID19 and vaccine development
Epitope pools detect CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in 100 and 70% of convalescent COVID patients
T cell responses are focused not only on spike but also on M, N and other ORFs
T cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 epitopes is also detected in non-exposed individuals
Understanding adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is important for vaccine development, interpreting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis, and calibration of pandemic control measures. Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide ‘megapools’, circulating SARS-CoV-2−specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers. The M, spike and N proteins each accounted for 11-27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a and ORF8, among others. For CD8+ T cells, spike and M were recognized, with at least eight SARS-CoV-2 ORFs targeted. Importantly, we detected SARS-CoV-2−reactive CD4+ T cells in ∼40-60% of unexposed individuals, suggesting cross-reactive T cell recognition between circulating ‘common cold’ coronaviruses and SARS-CoV-2.
You can get a copy of the paper here: PDF